Short term and long term goals?

I must be really dumb but I need some help. i have exam coming up and prof is going to give us 2 case studies (traditional and phonological). I know that short term goal for example is something that you might want corrected or to see improvment by semester end and long term may be at end of school year for example. I struggle with how do I write dfferent goals for the two..Prof has advised me that one of long term goals should encompass all of the errors of phonological process that child demonstrates. How does one write this goal that encompasses "all"? Can anyone just give an example of stg and ltg for a traditional and phonological case study. I am not asking anyone to do my homework. I don't even know what case studies are..thank you..
(Anonymous)
Well I am learning this right now in my prereq classes, and here is an example for you:

Example of a case study: Janie is a fourth grader. You tested her, and found that her articulation skills were fair, and language was WNL. Intelligibility is around 65%. The GFTA-2 indicated /s/ and /l/ as the main articulation sound errors she has. She is stimulable for /s/ in initial position of words and /l/ in initial syllables. You plan to accomplish these goals during functional tasks.

Short term goal: By the end of the month Janie will be able to produce /s/ and /l/ correctly as initial syllables when naming provided objects beginning with those sounds (e.g. stop sign) with 70% accuracy.

Long term goal: By the end of the year Janie will be able to read a short narrative in which /s/ and /l/ is the beginning sound for 60% of the words in the narrative, with minimal cues at 90% accuracy.
A long term goal can be very general and be years down the road - not just school year end.

For instance:
In order to be understood by communication partners in academic and personal settings, Bobby will increase his speech intelligibility by producing targeted sounds correctly. Targeted sounds include: /s, l, r/, and /s/ clusters.

(obviously this will take a long time)

Short-term: Bobby will produce /s/clusters at the word level with 80% accuracy over three consecutive sessions when given visual cues. (/s/ clusters were targeted for a specific reason before the others)

On an IEP you need to provide the INTENT of the goal as well as the goal. That's to help us all keep in mind what the overall goal is and how it ties into curriculum.

If you go with what the professor said "all PROCESSES" then the long-range goal could be something similar to:

Bobby will use age-appropriate speech sounds during conversation. (that wouldn't fly on an IEP for my unit, but might for your teacher)
I forgot to mention...it's not dumb to ask a question or be unsure. It's dumb to question and not ask. Goals can be very tricky. It's easy to make them too complicated and too far reaching. Remember, in the real world, you can always adjust goals as needed.

BTW, case studies are sample cases. Usually a short paragraph explaining what is happening with the client. From that you are to generate the next plans - assessment, therapy, etc. Professors are very fond of them (you'll see them LOTS) and usually are the things that comps are made of.

One thing that you didn't address in your question is objectives. You didn't ask for it, but I'm including what I used to get through the concept:

Long-term goals = when therapy ends,
Short-term Goals = when the semester (IEP now) ends,
Objectives = the daily goal the client needs to meet to accomplish the STG.

Long-range: all sounds correct
short-term: /s/ clusters all positions in sentences w/no cues.
Objective: /s/ cluster initial position of words w/max cues.

Hope that helps.
(Anonymous)
Do they want you to write them in behavioral objective format?

If so it'd be like

Johnny will produce /s/ in the initial position of words in phrases with 90% accuracy with moderate cueing.

Or

Johnny will produce fricatives in the initial position of words in conversation with 90% accuracy with minimal cueing.

If you look, each goal has what they'll do, how they'll do it, what mastery level it's at, as well as the amount of cueing they'll recieve.

I'm not sure what you mean by traditional, unless you're talking language. In that case, it might be.

Jillian will sequence three step events using picture cards with 90% accuracy with moderate cueing.

A long term goal for that might be:

Jillian will tell a narrative including a setting, a problem, and a resolution in 4/5 trials with minimal cueing.

Basically, a short term goal is a step along the road to a long term goal.
cues? what are they?
If you have a LT goal with minimal cues at 90% accuracy like in the case study for Janie, what are cues?
question
(Anonymous)
while writing long term goals,why we do not write that "the patient is able to produce that sound wiht 100% accuracy..???